Congress Seeks Compromise on Generic Drugs – New York Times
Biotech drugs, also known as biologic products, are typically proteins made by modifying the DNA of bacteria, yeast or mammal cells, and they are often given by injection or infusion. Supporters of the legislation received an unexpected boost when the chief medical officer of the Food and Drug Administration, Dr. Janet Woodcock, told Congress last month that the agency had the expertise and experience to decide what types of human and laboratory tests were needed to ensure that copies of a biotechnology drug worked as well as the original. Brand-name drug manufacturers have urged Congress to require human trials before allowing the sale of any products billed as comparable or equivalent to biotechnology medicines already on the market.
It is a complex issue, and clearly, proteins and large molecules that would not be synthesized, but “grown” are subject to larger batch by batch variation, especially when the generic company does not have access to the top-secret proprietary information that genentech, or J&J used to grow their molecule. So, some level of judgment is going to be required on the part of the FDA, which has the information from both the original, and the generic manufacturers. It looks like the FDA needs to, and is prepared to deal with each generic on a case by case basis, which is how it should be.
Protein characterization and analysis have come a long way in the last 10 years, with your fancy mass spectrometers and proteomics. It is a lot easier now to compare proteins with each other, to look for changes and differences. Mass spectrometric technology, improved electronics and huge increases in data processing and computing power make protein characterization increasingly routine. It would be up to the FDA to decide at what level of change would a protein behave so differently that its effect on humans could change significantly from the original drug, but they seem to be ready to do it.
“Some level of clinical testing should be required in all cases,” said Dr. Susan D. Desmond-Hellmann, president for product development at Genentech. Dr. Jay P. Siegel, a senior scientist at Johnson & Johnson, said: “I would never take a biologic that had not been tested in humans. The risks are too high.”
Yes, I would absolutely trust the word of the people who had the most to lose in this case, no conflict of interest here! To be fair, Dr. Siegel is understandably cautious. We have enough problems even with small molecules (think Vioxx!). But as I mentioned previously, it should be possible to come up with good enough metrics to decide when/where human re-testing is appropriate, instead of doing it always.
But Dr. Woodcock (of the FDA – inserted for context) said: “Where trials are not needed, it is of questionable ethics to repeat them. The use of human subjects for trials that are not needed is not desirable.”
People tend to forget that we’re experimenting on humans here, thanks Dr. Woodcock! Note that this is an issue where the established biologicals companies can use the safety card with impunity to protect their enormous profits. But they are not the ones who get to decide, it’s the FDA, and ultimately, Congress.
The chief lobby for makers of biotech drugs, the Biotechnology Industry Organization, strongly opposes the bill, saying it would endanger patients and kill incentives for research and innovation.
Oh really, how many times has this argument been raised, and proven to be false (see plutocracy-protectionary principle!). To believe this argument, we would have to believe that the 1984 generics law completely killed the small molecule industry. Not really, Glaxo, Pfizer, etc are still bigger and badder than ever.
Assuming a multiple sclerosis treatment costs $20,000 a year (from the article). If generics come in and there’s a 10% (low end) decline in price for the treatment, the amount saved is $2000 per patient. MS is estimated to have a prevalence rate of 0.1% in North America. So, that makes 0.3 million in the US. If half of them are on this treatment (random fudge factor), you (or your insurer) will save $300 million on one disease treatment option per year (and the biologics manufacturers will lose some portion of that). This is pretty big money, no wonder they’re throwing up roadblocks!